Urinary system notes

Whereas the specific gravity of pure water is 1.

The Urinary System

Extensions of the pelvis, calyces, form cup-shaped areas that enclose the tips of the pyramid and collect urine, which continuously drains from the tips of the pyramids into the renal pelvis. Each ureter runs behind the peritoneum from the renal hilum to the posterior aspect of the bladder, which it enters at a slight angle.

Each kidney contains over a million tiny structures called nephrons, and they are responsible for Urinary system notes urine. After the loop of Henle, the tubule continues to coil and twist before the collecting duct, and this part is called the distal convoluted tubule.

This is the part of the tubule that is near to the glomerular capsule. The smooth triangular region of the bladder base outlined by these three openings is called the trigone, where infections tend to persist.

Kidney cells also convert vitamin D to its active form. One of the main structures of a nephron, a glomerulus is a knot Urinary system notes capillaries.

Urinary System Anatomy and Physiology. The bladder wall contains three layers of smooth muscle, collectively called the detrusor muscle, and its mucosa is a special type of epithelium, transitional epithelium.

By producing the enzyme renin, they help regulate blood pressureand their hormone erythropoietin stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow.

Urinary System Anatomy and Physiology

A fatty mass, the perirenal fat capsule, surrounds each kidney and acts to cushion it against blows. It is located retroperitoneally in the pelvis just posterior to the symphysis pubis.

At about this point, stretching of the bladder wall activates stretch receptors. Nephrons Nephrons are the structural and functional units of the kidneys.

When formed, urine is sterile and slightly aromatic, but if allowed to stand, it takes on an ammonia odor caused by the action of bacteria on the urine solutes.

The pyramids are separated by extensions of cortex-like tissue, the renal columns. The renal fascia, the outermost capsule, anchors the kidney and helps hold it in place against the muscles of the trunk wall.

They arise from the efferent arteriole that drains the glomerulus. The efferent arteriole receives blood that has passed through the glomerulus.

Although the lungs and the skin also play roles in excretion, the kidneys bear the major responsibility for eliminating nitrogenous wastes, toxins, and drugs from the body. Ordinarily, the bladder continues to collect urine until about ml have accumulated.

At the bladder-urethral junction, a thickening of the smooth muscle forms the internal urethral sphincter, an involuntary sphincter that keeps the urethra closed when the urine is not being passed.

Because the lower external sphincter is skeletal muscle and voluntarily controlled, we can choose to keep it closed or it can be relaxed so that urine is flushed from the body. An adult kidney is about 12 cm 5 inches long, 6 cm 2. The outer region, which is light in color, is the renal cortex.

As the contractions become stronger, stored urine is forced past the internal urethral sphincter into the upper part of the urethra. Freshly voided urine is generally clear and pale to deep yellow.

Anatomy of the Kidneys

Small cortical radiate arteries then branch off the arcuate arteries and run outward to supply the cortical tissue. Urine contains nitrogenous wastes and unneeded substances.

Impulses transmitted to the sacral region of the spinal cord and then back to the bladder via the pelvic splanchnic nerves cause the bladder to go into reflex contractions.

The loop of Henle is the hairpin loop following the proximal convoluted tubule. Anatomy of the Urinary System The urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, a urinary bladder, and a urethra. In a few cases, the nephrons are called juxtamedullary nephrons because they are situated next to the cortex-medullary junction, and their loops of Henle dip deep into the medulla.Start studying Urinary System Notes.

Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. STUDY NOTES The urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, one bladder, and the urethraKidneys also Regulate blood volume by excreting 3/5(2).

Human Anatomy & Physiology: Urinary System; Ziser Lecture Notes, 1 The U rinary System Urine production and elim ination are one of the m ost.

Notes and presentation covering the urinary system; unit designed for a high school anatomy class. The urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, a urinary bladder, and a urethra. The kidneys alone perform the functions just described and manufacture urine in the process, while the other organs of the urinary system provide temporary storage reservoirs for urine or serve as.

These are the lecture notes of Physiology. Key important points are: Urinary System, Kidney Structure, Location of Kidneys, Kidney Functions, Renal Blood Vessels, Nephron Structure, Blood Supply of Nephron, Juxtaglomerular Apparatus, Urine Formation.

Urinary system notes
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