Its focus will now be more on upstream research related to new frontiers, as compared to the past structure, which was geared more toward industrial commercial needs.
It has developed several versions of membrane-based water-reclamation systems capable of delivering product water suitable for high-value reuse application. Freshwater - water with very low soluble mineral content; sources include lakes, streams, rivers, glaciers, and underground aquifers.
Drift-net fishing - done with a net, miles in extent, that is generally anchored to a boat and left to float with the tide; often results in an over harvesting and waste of large populations of non-commercial marine species by-catch by its effect of "sweeping the ocean clean.
To address this challenge, the ETI has set up an ultrapure water pilot plant, one of five worldwide and the only one in Asia outside Japan. Inuit Circumpolar Conference ICC - represents the roughlyInuits of Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Russia in international environmental issues; a General Assembly convenes every three years to determine the focus of the ICC; the most current concerns are long-range transport of pollutants, sustainable development, and climate change.
Studies to identify the type of bacteria present in treatment plants, as well as methods to determine the bacterial population have been initiated. Dredging - the practice of deepening an existing waterway; also, a technique used for collecting bottom-dwelling marine organisms e.
Desertification - the spread of desert-like conditions in arid or semi-arid areas, due to overgrazing, loss of agriculturally productive soils, or climate change. Salination - the process through which fresh drinkable water becomes salt undrinkable water; hence, desalination is the reverse process; also involves the accumulation of salts in topsoil caused by evaporation of excessive irrigation water, a process that can eventually render soil incapable of supporting crops.
Acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions see acid rain.
Asbestos - a naturally occurring soft fibrous mineral commonly used in fireproofing materials and considered to be highly carcinogenic in particulate form.
Soil erosion - the removal of soil by the action of water or wind, compounded by poor agricultural practices, deforestation, overgrazing, and desertification. Apart from these studies, other studies currently in progress at the NUS Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering include studies in wastewater treatment, reuse, and recycling, which focus on the use of physicochemical and biological methods, including adsorption, solid-liquid separation, and membrane systems.
To help meet its industrial needs, recycling wastewater is a feasible option for Singapore. This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. In land-scarce Singapore, waste management and waste disposal are important issues.
An area of studies at ETI is to upgrade wastewater to ultrapure water, which is extremely clean water used in semiconductor and electronics industries. Siltation - occurs when water channels and reservoirs become clotted with silt and mud, a side effect of deforestation and soil erosion.
Bio-indicators - a plant or animal species whose presence, abundance, and health reveal the general condition of its habitat.
Carbon cycle - the term used to describe the exchange of carbon in various forms, e. DDT dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane - a colorless, odorless insecticide that has toxic effects on most animals; the use of DDT was banned in the US in Aerosol - a collection of airborne particles dispersed in a gas, smoke, or fog.
Deforestation - the destruction of vast areas of forest e.
The EERC is carrying out various joint research projects with the Ministry of Environment and is collaborating with industries and overseas universities including Imperial College and Kyoto University.
Wong Fook-Sin, PhD, who heads the industrial wastewater treatment group at ETI, says that although one of the best options for Singapore industries is to recycle wastewater, the challenge is in doing this cost-effectively.
Noxious substances - injurious, very harmful to living beings. Groundwater - water sources found below the surface of the earth often in naturally occurring reservoirs in permeable rock strata; the source for wells and natural springs. Endangered species - a species that is threatened with extinction either by direct hunting or habitat destruction.
Overgrazing - the grazing of animals on plant material faster than it can naturally regrow leading to the permanent loss of plant cover, a common effect of too many animals grazing limited range land. The ETE comprised different research programs relating to the environment carried out at the NUS faculties of engineering, medicine, and science with research efforts focused on the following six areas: Metallurgical plants - industries which specialize in the science, technology, and processing of metals; these plants produce highly concentrated and toxic wastes which can contribute to pollution of ground water and air when not properly disposed.
Waterborne diseases - those in which bacteria survive in, and are transmitted through, water; always a serious threat in areas with an untreated water supply. Effluents - waste materials, such as smoke, sewage, or industrial waste which are released into the environment, subsequently polluting it.
Research efforts in remediation and biotreatment focus on the treatment of heavy metals and recalcitrant organics in industrial effluents and contaminated land. At present, though, Singapore depends on Malaysia for about half of the million gallons of fresh water it requires daily.Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful to humans.
It is important because it is needed for life to exist. Many uses of. The Issues Of Fresh Water In Singapore Environmental Sciences Essay. Print Reference this. Published: 23rd March, Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student.
This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. However, Singapore is not short of fresh water as it receives an average of around. In the Location Ranking Survey of human resource professionals in 35 countries based on expatriate living and working conditions, Singapore was ranked #1 in the best locations in Asia for expatriates to live and work.
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Fresh Water Problem In India Environmental Sciences Essay. Water covers nearly 70 percent of the surface of Earth, and only 1 percent of this water is .Download