Let us consider now the total context of dissonances and consonances in relation to one particular element. Because these participants did not make a decision, they did not have any dissonance to reduce.
Supposedly as an experiment in widening the range of menu in a military college, people were asked to try eating fried grasshoppers, an idea that no one found appealing. Forced compliance occurs when an individual performs an action that is inconsistent with his or her beliefs.
It is probably safe to assume that it is rare for no dissonance at all to exist within any cluster of cognitive elements. These elements refer to what has been called cognition, that is, the things a person knows about himself, about his behavior, and about his surroundings.
He further argued that pressures to communicate arise when discrepancies in opinions or attitudes exist among members of a group, and laid out a series hypotheses regarding determinants of when group members communicate, whom they communicate with, and how recipients of communication react, citing existing experimental evidence to support his arguments.
Leon FestingerAmerican social psychologist Keywords: Human Relations, 2 2— Since reduction of dissonance is a basic process in humans, it is not surprising that its manifestations may be observed in such a wide variety of contexts.
Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 68 4— If a person starts out on a picnic and notices that it has begun to rain, he may very well turn around and go home. This latter knowledge would be dissonant with his cognition about his behavior, namely, continuing to play. Decision Making Life is filled with decisions, and decisions as a general rule arouse dissonance.
In this culture there is a firm belief that people are good. The three psychologists and several more assistants joined the group. What was happening was that both sets of students had had to justify themselves the telling of the lie.
In other words, people simply tend to befriend their neighbors.
But in the above illustration it seems clear that the person may encounter difficulties in trying to change either his behavior or his knowledge. Indeed there are some areas of cognition where the existence of major dissonance is customary.
The above discussion has pointed to the possibility of reducing the total dissonance with some element by reducing the proportion of dissonant as compared with consonant relations involving that element. Tendencies toward group comparability in competitive bargaining.
Thus, for example, a person may plan to go to a picnic with complete confidence that the weather will be warm and sunny. But person are not always successful in explaining away or in rationalizing inconsistencies to themselves. A person may not be able to find the social support needed to change a cognitive element, or he may not be able to find new elements which reduce the total dissonance.
Public Opinion Quarterly, 28 3— Resistance to Change of Environmental Cognitive Elements Here again, as with behavioral cognitive elements, the major source of resistance to change lies in the responsiveness of these elements to reality.
What one wants or desires, what one is, and the like. To the extent that objective, nonsocial means are available, people evaluate their opinions and abilities by comparison respectively with the opinions and abilities of others.
A person may think Negroes are just as good as whites but would not want any living in his neighborhood; or someone may think little children should be quiet and unobtrusive and yet may be quite proud when his child aggressively captures the attention of his adult guests.
In this case the elements that are dissonant with each other are more important to the person, and the magnitude of dissonance will be correspondingly greater.
To state it a bit more formally, x and y are dissonant if not-x follows from y. The researchers explained this by cognitive dissonance theory. Sometimes, however, the resistances against this are quite strong. The existence of dissonance, being psychologically uncomfortable, will motivate the person to try to reduce the dissonance and achieve consonance.
But it is clearly hopeless to attempt to obtain a complete listing of cognitive elements, and even were such a listing available, in some cases it would be difficult or impossible to say, a priori, which of the three relationships holds.
If a person were standing in the rain and yet could see no evidence that he was getting wet, these two cognitions would be dissonant with one another because he knows from experience that getting wet follows from being out in the rain. Aim To investigate the relationship between dissonance and effort.
Some of these elements represent knowledge about oneself: A fear of dissonance would lead to a reluctance to take action - a reluctance to commit oneself. The resistance to change which the cognitive element possesses can, of course, not be greater than the pressure to respond to reality.
Behavioral support for opinion change. General Overviews The field of cognitive dissonance is broad.The Cognitive Dissonance Experiment is based on the theory of cognitive dissonance proposed by Leon Festinger in the year People hold many different cognitions about their world, e.g.
about their environment and their personalities. An Examination of Festinger's Cognitive Dissonance Theory and Notable Modifications Sometimes the greatest test of a theory is its longevity.
Over time, some theories will be disproved, some will be modified, and some will become the basis for a whole new group of theories. The theory of cognitive dissonance was molded by Leon Festinger at the beginning of the s.
The cognitive dissonance theory has been applied to a very large array of social situations and. Cognitive Dissonance (Leon Festinger) According to cognitive dissonance theory, there is a tendency for individuals to seek consistency among their cognitions (i.e., beliefs, opinions).
When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviors (dissonance). Cognitive Dissonance (Festinger) 2 years ago • Learning Theories & Models, Social Learning Theories • 0 Summary: Cognitive dissonance is the negative feeling.
Leon Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance has been widely recognized for its important and influential concepts in areas of motivation and social psychology. The theory of dissonance is here applied to the problem of why partial reward, delay of reward, and effort expenditure during training result in increased resistance to extinction/5(10).Download