He defines the middle class as those in the middle fifth of spending. Although other factors may also be at work, the 10 metropolitan areas with the greatest losses in economic status from to have one thing in common—a greater than average reliance on manufacturing.
But being middle class can connote more than income, be it a college education, white-collar work, economic security, homeownership, or having certain social and political values. Companies like  Apple and  Nike outsource jobs overseas so they can have cheaper labor to make their products and keep from raising prices in the States.
A metropolitan area consists of at least one urbanized area with a population of 50, or more people, plus neighboring areas that are socially and economically integrated with the core.
The share of adults in upper-income households increased in of the metropolitan areas, even as the share of adults in lower-income households rose in metropolitan areas from to Metropolitan areas with the largest upper-income populations are mostly in the Northeast or on the California coast.
The study found that mortality was on the rise among middle-aged, non-Hispanic white Americans — particularly those with no education beyond high school. Women from both of these groups experience first marriages that are more likely to endure than those of white women.
These are not always precise replications of the areas defined by OMB because PUMAs occasionally straddle official metropolitan area boundaries see the description of the variable MET at https: Middle-income households lost ground financially in of metropolitan areas from to On an absolute scale, the lowest incomes saw the greatest gains in percentage terms and the highest incomes actually declined.
Aside from work and education, some of the lifestyle factors that people traditionally associate with the middle class include the following: The widespread erosion of the middle class took place against the backdrop of a decrease in household incomes in most U.
White householders have consistently higher rates of homeownership than racial and ethnic minorities. Households experience financial setbacks in most metropolitan areas American households in all income tiers experienced a decline in their incomes from to Health care costs also have outstripped inflation; the cost of a catastrophic illness can quickly knock a middle-class household into another, better-defined economic category: A growing wealth gap between blacks and whites Households headed by whites have considerably higher median net worth — a measure of the value of what a household owns minus what it owes — than those headed by blacks.
Typically more education is linked to higher marriage rates, and the relatively low educational attainment of blacks is one factor underlying the low prevalence of marriage in this group.
Conversely, the gap between Hispanics and blacks has narrowed.
He believes that the best way to understand education through the eyes of middle-class citizens would be through social reproduction as middle-class parents breed their own offspring to become successful members of the middle-class.
By comparison, the rate among white men stands at 5. Pioneer 20th century American Marxist theoretician Louis C. Allegedly those who are categorized under the American middle-class give education great importance, and value success in education as one of the chief factors in establishing the middle-class life.
So some experts prefer to use wealth as the determining factor. Public opinion polls show how slippery the term can be. Since the s, rates of college graduation have increased significantly for all major racial and ethnic groups, though large gaps persist.
James Sullivan, Notre Dame. Supposedly the parents place a strong emphasis on the significance of quality education and its effects on success later in life.
In fact, the income of blacks at all levels of educational attainment lags behind that of their white counterparts. Given the high incarceration rate of blacks, it may be the case that if the entire population was included, the high school completion gap would be wider.
They also tend to have low levels of education. The other major winners among metropolitan areas are varied in nature. Those below that threshold are in debt and those above are wealthy. Wausau, WI, Janesville-Beloit, WI, and Sheboygan, WI, the three areas with the largest middle classes, are also among the metropolitan areas that had the lowest levels of income inequality in The difference—1 percentage point—is the net gain for American adults.
Reliant on government transfers. Even so, the Hispanic-white gap in college completion has persisted; whites today are more than twice as likely as Hispanics to have a college degree, as was the case in the early s.
Asian unemployment has mostly been on par with whites since when comparable data for Asians was first available. Every major recession since World War II has been followed by a drop in median income from which it has taken between three and seven years to recover.
It also describes the impact of adjusting incomes in metropolitan areas for the local cost of living.The lower-middle class, also sometimes simply referred to as “middle class,” includes roughly one third of U.S. households, and is thought to be growing.
Individuals in the lower-middle class tend to hold low status professional or white collar jobs, such as school teacher, nurse, or paralegal. The middle class is generally made up of people who fit some combination of the three. (This is not to say, for instance, that every year-old black college grad is middle class.) The Fed describes those doing better than the middle class as thrivers and those doing worse as stragglers.
6 charts showing race gaps within the American middle class. 6 charts showing race gaps within the American middle class black Americans are more likely to be poor than white Americans.
The middle class lost ground in nearly nine-in-ten U.S. metropolitan areas examined The American middle class is losing ground in metropolitan areas across the country, affecting communities from Boston to Seattle and from Dallas to Milwaukee. From to the share of adults living in middle. As the American middle class is estimated by some researchers to comprise approximately 45% of the population, The Economist 's article would put the size of the American middle class below the world average.
For more on this, see Pew Research Center’s report: “The American Middle Class is Losing Ground.” ↩ Data regarding Hispanics first became available on the CPS inand data regarding Asians first became available inDownload